**Figure 6.** **3-MA treatment reverses the effects of TubA on oxidative stress, apoptosis and ECM degradation.** (**A**, **B**) Western blotting and quantification of LC3, Atg5, HO-1 and SOD1 in each group. Chondrocytes were treated with TBHP + TubA, or TBHP + TubA + 3-MA for 6 hours. (**C**, **D**) IF staining and quantification of cleaved caspase3 in each chondrocyte group as above, scale bar = 100 μm, scale bar (enlarged) = 20 μm. (**E**, **F**) IF staining and quantification of Collagen II in each chondrocyte group as above, scale bar = 100 μm, scale bar (enlarged) = 20 μm. (**G**, **H**) IF staining and quantification of MMP13 in each chondrocyte group as above, scale bar = 100 μm, scale bar (enlarged) = 20 μm. N = 5, GAPDH was the loading control, significance: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.